The United Nations identifies someone without a home under two broad groups:
•Primary homelessness (or
rooflessness). This category includes persons living on the streets without a
shelter that would fall within the scope of living quarters
•Secondary homelessness. This category may include persons with no place of usual residence who move frequently between various types of accommodations (including dwellings, shelters and institutions for the homeless or other living quarters). This category includes persons living in private dwellings but reporting ‘no fixed abode’ on their census form.
•living in insecure housing (threatened with severe exclusion due to insecure tenancies, eviction, domestic violence)
•living in inadequate housing (in caravans on illegal campsites, in unfit housing, in extreme overcrowding)
FEANTSA, the European Federation of National Organisations working with the Homeless, has developed a European Typology of Homelessness and housing exclusion (ETHOS) as a means of improving understanding and measurement of homelessness in Europe, and to provide a common “language” for transnational exchanges on homelessness. This typology was launched in 2005 and is used for different purposes – as a framework for debate, for data collection purposes, for policy purposes, monitoring purposes, and in the media.
Homelessness is perceived and tackled differently according to the country. It was developed through a review of existing definitions of homelessness and the realities of homelessness which service providers are faced with on a daily basis. ETHOS categories therefore attempt to cover all living situations which amount to different forms of homelessness across Europe:
Homelessness can be defined narrowly to include only people without a roof over their heads or it can be defined more broadly. FEANTSA argues for a broad definition of homelessness, which includes, as well as people who are roofless, people who are houseless and people who live in insecure and inadequate housing. ETHOS – European Typology on Homelessness and Housing Exclusion FEANTSA (…) Read more
Who loses their home?
It is hard to imagine how someone can go from having a home one day to being out on the street the next. Many people who lose their homes start out with jobs and stable residences, but then social and economic factors intervene causing a rapid change in their living situation. The two biggest factors leading to people losing their homes are poverty and the lack of affordable housing.
Losing a job happens more frequently now than a few decades ago. The decline in manufacturing jobs and an increase in temporary and part-time employment have chipped away at the foundations of what was once a more stable job market.
Another difficult area is the lack of real affordable housing. The waiting list for low-income housing through the local authorities is at least five years in Bucharest and according to the law, being without a home is NOT a priority group for social housing.
A leading cause of losing a
home among women and children is domestic violence. Women with violent partners
sometimes have to choose between being abused at home or leaving home with
nowhere else to stay. Women who leave with their children are survivors, but
even in the safety of a shelter, rebuilding, gaining stability and establishing
a healthy network of relationships takes time.
Only 31% of the population contribute to the current state-controlled health insurance system leaving 14.8 million people without health cover. In 2011, funds for health care accounted for 4% of GDP, against the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) average of 9%. A major health crisis can be financially ruining.
People with mental health issues such as schizophrenia and personality disorders can lose their homes because of difficulties with adapting to family life, job and society. The closure of some mental health care institutions left many former patients being released from care into unknown living situations.
Not every person who loses their homes has a substance abuse problem, but many do and become dependent on alcohol and abuse other substances. The problems related to long-term substance abuse encompasses an abuser’s entire life. Because drug abuse is illegal, it often leads to further illegal activity, meaning time in and out of prison. Abuse has a negative impact on a person’s ability to work and maintain relationships and causes chronic health problems.
The transition from youth to adulthood is difficult for many people, but for young people who have grown up in poverty, this transition can be particularly difficult. Young people who have had to spend time in local authority care are more likely to experience being without a home. Supportive youth programmes end when they reach adulthood, although many are often unprepared for the difficult decisions they have to face at that age
Effects of family homelessness
When we think about people who have lost their homes, we usually think about adults. Unfortunately, thousands of children experience homelessness alongside their parents every year, sleeping in cars, shelters, and abandoned buildings. They move around continually, resulting in school disruption and even dropout.
Families are the fastest growing segment of the homeless population. Many families, including children, have experienced trauma prior to losing their homes. Their homeless experience compounds the suffering, resulting in a cycle that is tragic, damaging and costly to both individuals and communities.
Research indicates that the typical family who has lost their home is headed by a single mother, usually in her late twenties. She has with her two or three young children. More than 90% of sheltered and low-income mothers have experienced physical and sexual assault over their lifespan.
Being without a home has a devastating impact on families, causing instability and insecurity. These families often lose their possessions and their jobs. They may also lose their relationships with friends and family, links to their community including relationships with family doctors and teachers. There is evidence suggesting that children living in shelters are generally younger than 12 years old and therefore in a crucial period of their development. The experience of losing one’s home and domestic violence has a serious impact on their health, education and wellbeing. These impacts include higher rates of anxiety, emotional and behavioural issues and mental illness. Parents trying to support their families without having a place to live can experience emotional and physical health issues, poor nutrition, isolation, and relationship difficulties. The experience affects the parents’ ability to provide appropriate support to their children resulting in many being taken into local authority care. The longer the episode lasts, the more difficult it is for families to regain their stability.
Impact on children’s health
Children growing up without a home are ill much more often than other children are and have higher rates of acute and chronic illnesses. Additionally, many suffer from emotional or behavioural problems, which will impede learning. These children tend to struggle with higher rates of mental health issues such as anxiety, depression, or withdrawal.
Children who do not have homes go hungry much more often than other children do.
Impact on education
Although the majority of children and young people without a home attend school, not all attend regularly. Those who are able to attend school have more problems learning in school. Compared with other children, they are more likely to experience developmental delays and very likely to have learning disabilities.
What Solutions to Homelessness Exist?
Through research, we learn what families need to rebound from the economic, social, medical, and mental health problems that put them on the streets. Through program evaluation, we identify strategies that work and we use this knowledge to design innovative practices.
Whether one loses their home through economic hardship, domestic violence, or physical or emotional challenges, families lose more than their homes. They risk losing their health, safety and the ability to look after themselves and their children. Young children who have often witnessed violence in their families and who live on the streets suffer anxiety, depression and are withdrawn. At first, they may need shelter, but to build a life, they also need support.
Not having a place to live is not just about bricks and mortar; it is about people. People lose their homes when things go wrong in their lives. Simply providing a place to live will not heal emotional wounds, break addiction, create relational stability or establish healthy life skills. The solution is not found in just providing a home, but in addressing the issues that caused them to lose their homes in the first place. It is all about people.
The central message of FEANTSA’s ’Ending Homelessness’ campaign and its work is that homelessness can and should be ended. The campaign material includes a handbook with examples of how this can be done following five goals. FEANTSA believes that homelessness can only be addressed if integrated homelessness strategies are in place. With this in mind, it has compiled a toolkit for developing a homelessness strategy and collects examples of existing homelessness strategies for reference.